The Rufous Treecreeper is easily recognised by its rufous-brown face and underparts, brown back, wings and crown, and typical treecreeper behaviour of climbing up the trunks of trees, along branches or on the ground, prying under loose bark and leaf litter for insects and other invertebrates. The male is distinguished from the female by the dark streaks on his breast, the female has pale streaks. The species is found throughout southern Australia, from western WA to around Eyre Peninsula, SA, where it inhabits open forests and woodlands. It nests within vertical tree hollows, within which it constructs a small cup-shaped nest of grass, tree bark and feathers, within which it lays two or three eggs, which are incubated solely by the female, while she is fed on the nest by the male. Both sexes feed the young. Its call is somewhat scratchy and weak.